FIBOSUM - Fibonacci Sum

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The fibonacci sequence is defined by the following relation:

  • F(0) = 0
  • F(1) = 1
  • F(N) = F(N - 1) + F(N - 2), N >= 2

Your task is very simple. Given two non-negative integers N and M, you have to calculate the sum (F(N) + F(N + 1) + ... + F(M)) mod 1000000007.

Input

The first line contains an integer T (the number of test cases). Then, T lines follow. Each test case consists of a single line with two non-negative integers N and M.

Output

For each test case you have to output a single line containing the answer for the task.

Example

Input:
3
0 3
3 5
10 19

Output:
4
10
10857

Constraints

  • T <= 1000
  • 0 <= N <= M <= 109

hide comments
marethyu1: 2018-12-10 20:50:22

I got segmentation fault, please help!

salman3007: 2018-10-18 16:20:26

use this to print answers:
cout<<(fibonacci(b+2)-fibonacci(a+1)+mod)%mod<<endl;
ensures positive results

masterchef2209: 2018-09-08 11:24:32

negative modulus case was very tricky

mr_robot_rb01: 2018-09-03 06:30:53

Matrix Exponention
Modular Arithematic

hazard_10: 2018-05-13 02:42:21

Last edit: 2018-05-30 17:14:07
ameyanator: 2018-03-22 22:20:06

I've learnt matrix exponentiation because of this question

hrsh_sengar: 2018-03-14 19:57:24

My 101th :)

m2do: 2018-01-10 19:48:53

Matrix Exponentiation it is! :)

rohansaraf033: 2017-12-24 21:40:59

Learnt matrix expo:
but not tried with f(n+2)-1 :)

chetan4060: 2017-12-19 13:08:46

AC in one go:-)


Added by:David Gómez
Date:2010-12-04
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