INVCNT - Inversion Count


Let A[0...n - 1] be an array of n distinct positive integers. If i < j and A[i] > A[j] then the pair (i, j) is called an inversion of A. Given n and an array A your task is to find the number of inversions of A.

Input

The first line contains t, the number of testcases followed by a blank space. Each of the t tests start with a number n (n <= 200000). Then n + 1 lines follow. In the ith line a number A[i - 1] is given (A[i - 1] <= 10^7). The (n + 1)th line is a blank space.

Output

For every test output one line giving the number of inversions of A.

Example

Input:
2

3
3
1
2

5
2
3
8
6
1


Output:
2
5

hide comments
hansolo_17: 2015-12-02 19:09:18

there should be 7 inversions in case -2 instead of 6
Confused!!!!

Priyank: 2015-11-15 12:23:59

Key Learnings ---
Data Type. Use of Merge Sort. Remain careful in setting bound on array.

angel_of_death: 2015-11-05 00:26:40

@Anh Quan Thanks for the tip about using long long. That did the trick.

gullu_mishra: 2015-11-02 20:37:04

superb use of divide and conquer ;)

Advitiya: 2015-10-20 22:49:41

YODANESS~INVCNT :) mergesort

satish9040: 2015-10-19 10:53:37

how unsorted the array is!!! :)

Mateusz Kwasniak: 2015-10-15 13:31:48

Of course both div&conq and BIT will work. Good one.

Last edit: 2015-10-15 13:32:09
cortana: 2015-10-14 06:01:18

datatype of count to be noted (long long int), caused me 2 WA!

Sarthak Munshi: 2015-09-23 21:14:33

2 WA, 2 RE , 1 CE . But then AC using BIT !

Nitin Tiwari: 2015-09-18 23:45:58

accepted in first go


Added by:Paranoid Android
Date:2010-03-06
Time limit:3.599s
Source limit:50000B
Memory limit:1536MB
Cluster: Cube (Intel G860)
Languages:All except: PERL6